The head of state of Pakistan from independence until Pakistan became a republic in 1956 was the British monarch. For the Governor-Generals who represented them from 1947 to 1956,
The President of Pakistan is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. According to the Constitution of Pakistan, the President has “powers, subject to Supreme Court approval or veto, to dissolve the National Assembly, triggering new elections, and thereby dismissing the Prime Minister”. These powers were repeatedly modified through amendments to the constitution, which were introduced as the results of military coups and changes in government. Since the 18th Amendment to the Constitution was passed in 2010, Pakistan has been shifted back from semi-presidential to a parliamentary democratic republic. Under that system, the president has limited ruling powers, and performs ceremonial duties while the Prime Minister enjoys more powers to execute decisions. The president is chosen by the Electoral College composed of the Senate, the National Assembly and the Provincial Assemblies.
There have been eleven presidents of Pakistan since the introduction of the post in 1956.The office was established when Pakistan was declared as a republic with the adoption of the 1956 constitution, and Iskander Mirza became the first president of the country. Apart from these eleven, two acting presidents have also been in office for short periods of time. One of them, Wasim Sajjad, served as acting president on two non-consecutive occasions during 1993 and 1997–98. The president may remain in office for a tenure of five years. In the case where a president’s term of office is terminated early or during the absence of the president, the Chairman of the Senate assumes office.
Six presidents have been members of a political party and four of them were active party members of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP). The first president was a retired military officer, four others were incumbent military officers of which three gained power through successful military coups in Pakistan’s history – Ayub Khan in 1958, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 and Pervez Musharraf in 1999. President Zia died in office when his aircraft crashed while returning from Bahawalpur to Islamabad on 17 August 1988. Khan, during his two terms, remained in the office for the longest period with ten years and five months approximately.
The current president of Pakistan is Mamnoon Hussain of Pakistan Muslim League (N)